Winegrowers Supplies -  Vine variety information

Chardonnay

Other names: in France: 

Mother: unknown
Father: unknown

Country of origin: France

Breeder/License holder: clone producers
Number of clones: a large number (French, German, USA etc), details on individual clones are presented at the end of this report.

Year of entry into the German Federal Office's Varieties Register: 
Area planted in Germany: 821 hectares
Area planted in England: now the largest, although most are not yet producing grapes.

Wine Character - colour: 
                      - bouquet: arômes de acacia, amande, amande grillée, amande verte, ambre, aubépine, banane, beurre frais, brioche, cannelle, cassis, cerise, champignon, chèvrefeuille, cire, citron, cuir, coing, épices, feuille de cassis, fleur d'oranger, foin fraîchement coupé, fougère(léger), fruits secs, herbe fraîche, lilas, lys, mangue, marron glacé, menthe verte, mie de pain, miel, mousseron, mûre, noisette, noisette grillée, notes beurrées, noyau de pêche, orange confite, ortie blanche, pain beurré, pain grillé, pamplemousse, papaye, pâte d'amande, pêche blanche, pétale de rose, pierre à fusil, poire, poivre, pomme, réglisse, silex, sous bois, sureau, tabac blond, tilleul, toast, truffe, vanille, verveine, violette.
                      - palate: from unripe grapes it is thin and grassy, from very ripe grapes it is aromatic and full-bodied

 

Time of bud-burst: 

Shoot-tip: 
Strength of growth: 
Growth of side-shoots: above average

Leaf: - size:                                         - shape:
        - colour: 
        - surface undulation: smooth          - petiolar sinus: U shape

Flowering time: 
Flowering strength: 

Grape bunch: - size: small to medium      - density: compact
                   - shape: cylindrical
Berries:        - size: small to medium      - shape: round, perhaps slightly elongated
                   - skin colour: green, yellow as it approaches full maturity

Time of veraison: 
Time of harvest: 

Grape yield: 
Must-weight: 
Must-acidity: high

Wood ripening: good
Winter hardiness: good
Wood colour: 

Chlorosis resistance: 
Resistance against: - Oidium: average        - Peronospora: 
                            - Botrytis: average       - Roter Brenner: 
                            - Phomopsis                - Stem-atrophy: 

Preferred soil: chalk/limestone
Suitable rootstocks: SO4. For close planting, 3309, Fercal, 161-49.

Normal stem height: 
Normal row spacing: 
Vine spacing in the row: 

Winter Pruning:       eyes/buds per sq. metre of land occupied by the plant.

Advantages:  

Disadvantages:  Needs a suitable site and soil.

  

Summary table of clones:-

    Burgundy-type >>---------------------------->>Champagne-type

small berries medium berries large berries
lower yield medium yield high yield
     
Gm 50 Fr 150 Gm 1
Gm 51 Fr 151 Gm 2
Gm 52   Gm 3
Gm 53 D 278  
Gm 54 D 263 SMA 108
Gm 57 D 264 SMA 123
  D 269 SMA 130
D 276 aroma D 274  
D 258 aroma D 261 St 130
  D 259  
Fr 155 intensive aroma D 253 Fr 152
     
ENTAV 76 ENTAV 95 D 271
ENTAV 116 ENTAV 96 D 250
ENTAV 117 ENTAV 277 D 260
ENTAV 118 ENTAV 548  
ENTAV 119    

French (ENTAV) clones:-

Clones certified by the French government authorities and available under the ENTAV/INRA (L'Etablissement National Technique pour l'Amélioration de la Viticulture/Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France) trademark. After each clone has passed through a period of sanitary and genetic selection it undergoes registration and is assigned a unique certification number by ONIVINS (Office National Interprofessional des Vins, France) after approval by the CTPS (Committee of Selection of Cultivated Plants of the French Ministry of Agriculture).
ONIVINS has recently (2010) been renamed Agri Mer.

In 2006 there were 34 different clones planted in France, however, some of these have become obsolete. Most of the clones were developed at the University of Burgundy in Dijon; they have been classified as Dijon/Burgundy type or Chardonnay type (more vigorous, higher yielding, higher acidity). The current clones are:-

Dijon/Burgundy clones: 75, 76, 78, 95, 96, 116, 117, 118, 119, 277, 548, 809

Champagne clones: 118, 121, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132

also 122, 128, 414, 415, 549, 1066, 1067, 1068.

Notes: clone 77 has a muscat flavour, clone 809 also has a high concentration of linalool; having aromatic/grapey aromas. Clone 548 has the highest quality, clone 95 has slightly higher yield than 548.


Information compiled by ENTAV (in 1995) on five Chardonnay clones:-

Clone:                       76
Origin:              Saone-et-Loire
Fertility:                Medium (i.e. the number of bunches in relation to the number of buds left after pruning)
Bunch weight:         Medium
Yield potential:   Fairly high to high
Sugar content:       Superior
Wine character: Well balanced, fine wines typical of the variety, non-aromatic (very low concentrations of linalool and geraniol)
Observations:    Good quality and regular production

Clone:                       78
Origin:                 Côte d'Or
Fertility:                Medium to superior
Bunch weight:         Medium
Yield potential:    High to very high
Sugar content:        Inferior
Wine character: If there is over production the wines are neutral and thin
Observations:    Very productive, more regular production than clone 75.
                      Vigour and yield has to be controlled else the wine is neutral and 'common'

Clone:                       95
Origin:                 Côte d'Or
Fertility:                Medium
Bunch weight:         Medium
Yield potential:   Fairly high to high
Sugar content:       Superior
Wine character: Full, rich and balanced wines with fine aromas
Observations:    Very good in any situation

Clone:                       96
Origin:                 Côte d'Or
Fertility:                Medium
Bunch weight:         Medium
Yield potential:   Fairly high to high
Sugar content:        Medium
Wine character: Nervous, balanced wines and aromatic wines
Observations:    Regular and good production

Clone:                     277
Origin:                 Côte d'Or
Fertility:                Superior
Bunch weight:         Medium
Yield potential:   High to very high
Sugar content:        Medium
Wine character: Balanced and aromatic wines
Observations:    Vigour and yield has to be controlled else the wine is neutral and 'common'

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